Briefe and true report of the new found land of Virginia

An Electronic Edition · Thomas Hariot (1560-1621)

Original Source: A briefe and true report of the new found land of Virginia (Frankfurt, 1590)

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A briefe and true report of the new found land
of Virginia, of the commodities and of the nature and man ners of the naturall
inhabitants: Discouered bÿ the English Colony there seated by Sir Richard
Greinuile Knight In the yeere 1585. Which remained vnder the gouernment of
twelue monethes, At the speciall charge and direction of the Honourable SIR
WALTER RALEIGH Knight, lord Warden of the stanneries Who therein hath beene
fauoured and authorised bÿ her MAIESTIE :and her letters patents: This fore
booke Is made in English By Thomas Hariot; seruant to the abouenamed Sir
WALTER, a member of the Colonÿ, and there imploÿed in discouering. CVM GRATIA

[link to facsimile]

KNIGHT, SENESCHAL OF THE DVCHIES OF Cornewall and Exeter, and L. Warden of the
stannaries in Deuon and Cornewall, T.B. wisheth true felicitie.

SIR, seeing that the parte of the Worlde,
which is betwene the FLORIDA and the Cap BRETON nowe nammed VIRGINIA, to the
honneur of yours most souueraine Layde and Queene ELIZABETZ, hath ben
descouuerd by yours meanes. And great chardges. And that your Collonye hath
been theer established to your great honnor and prayse, and noelesser proffit
vnto the common [link to facsimile]
welth: Yt ys good raison that euery man euertwe him selfe for
to showe the benefit which they haue receue of yt. Theerfore, for my parte I
haue been allwayes Desirous for to make yow knowe the good will that I haue to
remayne still your most humble særuant. I haue thincke that I cold faynde noe
better occasion to declare yt, then takinge the paines to cott in copper (the
most diligent ye and well that wear in my possible to doe) the Figures which
doe leuelye represent the forme aud maner of the Inhabitants of the sane
countrye with theirs ceremonies, sollemne,, feastes, and the manner and
situation of their Townes of Villages. Addinge vnto euery figure a brief
declaration of the same, to that ende that cuerye man cold the better
vnderstand that which is in liuely represented. Moreouer I haue thincke that
the aforesaid figures wear of greater commendation, If somme Histoire which
traitinge of the commodites and fertillitye of the rapport which Thomas Hariot
hath lattely sett foorth, and haue causse them booth togither to be printed for
to dedicated vnto you, as a thiuge which by reigtte dooth allreadye apparteyne
vnto you. Therfore doe I creaue that you will accept this little Booke, and
take yt In goode partte. And desiring that fauor that you will receue me in the
nomber of one of your most humble seruantz, besechinge the lord to blese and
further you in all yours good doinges and actions, and allso to preserue, and
keepe you allwayes in good helthe. And so I comitt you unto the almyhttie, from
Franckfort the first of Apprill 1590.

Your most humble seruant,


[link to facsimile]


SINCE the first vndertaking by Sir Walter Ralegh to deale
in the action of discouering of that Countrey which is now called and known by
the name of VIRGINIA; many voyages hauing bin thiter made at sundrie times to
his great charge; as first in the yeere 1584. and afterwardes in the yeeres
1585. 1586. and now of late this last yeare of 1587. There haue bin diuers and
variable reportes with some slaunderous and shamefull speeches bruited abroade
by many that returned from thence. Especially of that discouery which was made
by the Colony transported by Sir Richard Greinuile in the yeare 1585. being of
all the others the most principal and as yet of most effect, the time of their
abode in the countrey beeing a whole yeare, when as in the other voyage before
they staied but sixe weekes; and the others after were onelie for supply and
transportation, nothing more being discouered then had been before. Which
reports haue not done a litle wrong to many that otherwise would have also
fauoured & aduentured in the action, to the honour and benefite of our
nation, besides the particular profite and credite which would redound to them
selues the dealers therein; as I hope by the sequele of euents to the shame of
those that haue auouched the contrary shalbe manifest: if you the aduenturers,
fauourers, and welwillers do but either encrease in number, or in opinion
continue, or hauing bin doubtfull renewe your good liking and furtherance to
deale therein according to the worthinesse thereof alreadye found and as you
shall vnderstand hereafter to be requisite. Touching which woorthines through
cause of the diuersitie of relations and reportes, manye of your opinions
coulde not bee firme, nor the mindes of some that are well disposed, bee setled
in any certaintie. 2.

I haue therefore thought it good beeing one that haue beene
in the discouerie and in dealing with the natuall inhabitantes specially
imploied; and hauing therefore seene and knowne more then the ordinaire: to
imparte so much vnto you of the fruites of our labours, as that you may knowe
howe iniuriously the enterprise is slaundered. And that in publike manner at
this present chiefelie for two respectes. 3.

First that some of you which are yet ignorant or doubtfull
of the state thereof, may see that there is sufficiẽt cause why the cheefe
enterpriser with the fauour of her Maiestie, notwithstanding suche reportes;
hath not onelie since continued the action by sending into the countrey againe,
and replanting this last yeere a new Colony; but is also readie, according as
the times and meanes will affoorde, to follow and prosecute the same. 4.

Secondly, that you seeing and knowing the continuance of the
action by the view hereof you may generally know & learne what the countrey
is; & therevpon cõsider how your dealing therein if it proceede, may
returne you profit and gaine; bee it either by inhabitting & planting or
otherwise in furthering thereof.5.

And least that the substance of my relation should be
doubtful vnto you, as of others by reason of their diuersitie: I will first
open the cause in a few wordes wherefore they are [link to facsimile] so different; referring my
selue to your fauourable constructions, and to be adiudged of as by good
consideration you shall finde cause. 6.

Of our companie that returned some for their misdemenour and
ill dealing in the countrey, haue beene there worthily punished; who by reason
of their badde natures, haue maliciously not onelie spoken ill of their
Gouernours; but for their sakes slaundered the countrie it selfe. The like also
haue those done which were of their confort.7.

Some beeing ignorant of the state thereof, nothwithstanding
since their returne amongest their friendes and acquaintance and also others,
especially if they were in companie where they might not be gainesaide; woulde
seeme to know so much as no men more; and make no men so great trauailers as
themselues. They stood so much as it maie seeme vppon their credite and
reputation that hauing been a twelue moneth in the countrey, it woulde haue
beene a great disgrace vnto them as they thought, if they coulde not haue saide
much wheter it were true or false. Of which some haue spoken of more then euer
they saw or otherwise knew to bee there; othersome haue not bin ashamed to make
absolute deniall of that which although not by thẽ, yet by others is most
certainely ãd there plẽtifully knowne. And othersome make difficulties of those
things they haue no skill of.8.

The cause of their ignorance was, in that they were of that
many that were neuer out of the Iland where wee were seated, or not farre, or
at the leastwise in few places els, during the time of our aboade in the
countrey; or of that many that after golde and siluer was not so soone found,
as it was by them looked for, had little or no care of any other thing but to
pamper their bellies; or of that many which had little vnderstanding, lesse
discretion, and more tongue then was needfull or requisite.9.

Some also were of a nice bringing vp, only in cities or
townes, or such as neuer (as I may say) had seene the world before. Because
there were not to bee found any English cities, norsuch faire houses, nor at
their owne wish any of their olde accustomed daintie food, nor any soft beds of
downe or fethers: the countrey was to them miserable, & their reports
thereof according.10.

Because my purpose was but in briefe to open the cause of
the varietie of such speeches; the particularities of them, and of many
enuious, malicious, and slaũderous reports and deuises els, by our owne
countrey men besides; as trifles that are not worthy of wise men to bee thought
vpon, I meane not to trouble you withall: but will passe to the commodities,
the substance of that which I haue to make relation of vnto you. 11.

The treatise where of for your more readie view &
easier vnderstanding I will diuide into three speciall parts. In the first I
will make declaration of such commodities there alreadie found or to be raised,
which will not onely serue the ordinary turnes of you which are and shall bee
the plãters and inhabitants, but such an ouerplus sufficiently to bee yelded,
or by men of skill to bee prouided, as by way of trafficke and exchaunge with
our owne nation of England, will enrich your selues the prouiders; those that
shal deal with you; the enterprisers in general; and greatly profit our owne
countrey men, to supply them with most things which heretofore they haue bene
faine to prouide, either of strangers or of our enemies: which commodities for
distinction sake, I call Merchantable.12.

In the second, I will set downe all the cõmodities which
wee know the countrey by our experience doeth yeld of its selfe for victuall,
and sustenance of mans life; such as is vsually fed vpon by the inhabitants of
the countrey, as also by vs during the time we were there.13.

In the last part I will make mention generally of such
other cõmodities besides, as I am able to remember, and as I shall thinke
behoofull for those that shall inhabite, and plant there to knowe of; which
specially concerne building, as also some other necessary vses: with a briefe
description of the nature and maners of the people of the countrey. [link to facsimile] 14.


Silke of grasse or grasse Silke.

THere is a kind of grasse in the countrey vppon the
blades where of there groweth very good silke in forme of a thin glittering
skin to bee stript of. It groweth two foote and a halfe high or better: the
blades are about two foot in length, and half inch broad. The like groweth in
Persia, which is in the selfe same climate as Virginia, of which very many of
the silke workes that come from thence into Europe are made. Here of if it be
planted and ordered as in Persia, it cannot in reason be otherwise, but that
there will rise in shorte time great profite to the dealers therein; seeing
there is so great vse and vent thereof as well in our countrey as els where.
And by the meanes of sowing & plãting in good ground, it will be farre
greater, better, and more plentifull then it is. Although notwithstanding there
is great store thereof in many places of the countrey growing naturally and
wilde. Which also by proof here in England, in making a piece of silke Grogran,
we found to be excellent good.15.

Worme Silke.

In manie of our iourneyes we found silke wormes fayre and
great; as bigge as our ordinary walnuttes. Although it hath not beene our happe
to haue found such plentie as elsew here to be in the coutrey we haue heard of;
yet seeing that the countrey doth naturally breede and nourish them, there is
no doubt but if art be added [link to facsimile] in plantig of mulbery trees and others fitte for
them in commodious places, for their feeding and nourishing; and some of them
carefully gathered and husbanded in that sort as by men of skill is knowne to
be necessarie: there will rise as great profite in time to the Virginians, as
there of doth now to the Persians, Turkes, Italians, and Spaniards. 16.

Flaxe and Hempe.

The trueth is that of Hempe and Flaxe there is no greate
store in any one place together, by reason it is not planted but as the soile
doth yeeld it of it selfe; and howsoeuer the leafe, and stemme or stalke doe
differ from ours; the stuffe by the iudgemẽt of men of skill is altogether as
good as ours. And if not, as further proofe should finde otherwise; we haue
that experience of the soile, as thas there canno bee shewed anie reason to the
contrary, but that it will grow there excellent well; and by planting will be
yeelded plentifully: seeing there is so much ground whereof some may well be
applyed to such purposes. What benefite heereof may growe in cordage and
linnens who can not easily vnderstand?17.


There is a veine of earth along the sea coast for the
space of fourtie or fiftie miles, whereof by the iudgement of some that have
made triall heere in England, is made good Allum, of that kinde which is called
Roche Allum. The richnesse of such a commoditie is so well knowne that I neede
not to saye any thing thereof. The same earth doth also yeelde White Copresse,
Nitrum, and Alumen Plumeum, but nothing so plentifully as the common Allum;
which be also of price and profitable.18.


Wapeih, a kinde of earth so called by the naturall
inhabitants; very like to terra sigillata: and hauing beene refined, it hath
beene found by some of our Phisitiõs and Chirurgeons to bee of the same kinde
of vertue and more effectuall. The inhabitãts vfe it very much for the cure of
sores and woundes: there is in diuers places great plentie, and in some places
of a blewe sort.19.

Pitch, Tarre, Rozen, and Turpentine.

There are those kindes of trees which yeelde them
abundantly and great store. In the very same Iland where wee were seated, being
fifteene miles of length, and fiue or sixe miles in breadth, there are fewe
trees els but of the same kind; the whole Iland being full. [Sassafras.] [link to facsimile] 20.


Sassafras, called by the
inhabitantes Winauk, a kinde of wood of most pleasand and sweete smel; and of
most rare vertues in phisick for the cure of many diseases. It is found by
experience to bee farre better and of more vses then the wood which is called
Guaiacum, or Lignum
. For the description, the manner of vsing and the manifolde
vertues thereof, I referre you to the booke of Monardus, translated and entituled in English,
The ioyfull newes from the West
. 21.


Cedar, a very sweet wood &
fine timber; whereof if nests of chests be there made, or timber therof fitted
for sweet & fine bedsteads, tables, or deskes, lutes, virginalles &
many things else, (of which there hath beene proofe made already) to make vp
fraite with other principal commodities will yeeld profite. 22.


There are two kinds of grapes that the soile doth yeeld
naturally: the one is small and sowre of the ordinarie bignesse as ours in
England: the other farre greater & of himselfe iushious sweet. When they
are plãted and husbandeg as they ought, a principall commoditie of wines by
them may be raised.23.


There are two sortes of Walnuttes both holding oyle, but the one farre more
plentifull then the other. When there are milles & other deuises for the
purpose, a commodity of them may be raised because there are infinite store.
There are also three seuerall kindes of Berries in
the forme of Oke akornes, which also by the experience and vse of the
inhabitantes, wee finde to yeelde very good and sweete oyle. Furthermore the
Beares of the countrey are commonly very fatte, and
in some places there are many: their fatnesse because it is so liquid, may well
be termed oyle, and hath many speciall vses. 24.


All along the Sea coast there are great store of
Otters, which beeying taken by weares and other
engines made for the purpose, will yeelde good profite. Wee hope also of
Marterne furres, and make no doubt by the relation
of the people but that in some places of the countrey there are store: although
there were but two skinnes that came to our handes. Luzarnes also we haue vnderstãding of. although for the
time we saw none. [link to facsimile] 25.

Deare skinnes.

Deare skinnes dressed after
the manner of Chamoes or vndressed are to be had of
the naturall inhabitants thousands yeerely by way of trifficke for trifles: and
no more wast or spoile of Deare then is and hath beene ordinarily in time

Ciuet cattes.

In our trauailes, there was founde one to haue beene
killed by a saluage or inhabitant: and in an other place the smell where one or
more had lately beene before: whereby we gather besides then by the relation of
the people that there are some in the countrey: good profite will rise by


In two places of the countrey specially, one about
fourescore and the other sixe score miles from the Fort or place where wee
dwelt: wee founde neere the water side the ground to be rockie, which by the
triall of a minerall man, was founde to holde Iron richly. It is founde in
manie places of the countrey else. I knowe nothing to the contrarie, but that
it maie bee allowed for a good marchantable commoditie, considering there the
small charge for the labour and feeding of men: the infinite store of wood: the
want of wood and deerenesse thereof in England: & the necessity of
ballasting of shippes. 28.


A hundred and fiftie miles into the maine in two townes
wee founde with the inhabitaunts diuerse small plates of copper, that had beene
made as wee vnderstood, by the inhabitantes that dwell farther into the
countrey: where as they say are mountaines and Riuers that yeelde also whyte
graynes of Mettall, which is to bee deemed Siluer.
For confirmation whereof at the time of our first arriuall in the Countrey, I
sawe with some others with mee, two small peeces of siluer grosly beaten about
the weight of a Testrone, hangyng in the eares of a Wiroans or chiefe Lorde that
dwelt about fourescore myles from vs; of whom thorowe enquiry, by the number of
dayes and the way, I learned that it had come to his handes from the same place
or neere, where I after vnderstood the copper was made and the white graynes of
mettall founde. The aforesaide copper wee also founde by triall to holde


Sometimes in feeding on muscles wee founde some pearle;
but it was our hap to meete with ragges, or of a pide colour; not hauing yet
discouered those [places] [link to facsimile] places where wee hearde of better and more plentie.
One of our companie; a man of skill in such matters, had gathered to gether
from among the sauage people aboute fiue thousande: of which number he chose so
many as made a fayre chaine, which for their likenesse and vniformitie in
roundnesse, orientnesse, and pidenesse of mãy excellent colours, with equalitie
in greatnesse, were verie fayer and rare; and had therefore beene presented to
her Maiestie, had wee not by casualtie and through extremity of a storme, lost
them with many things els in comming away from the countrey. 30.

Sweete Gummes.

Sweete Gummes of diuers kindes and many other Apothecary
drugges of which wee will make speciall mention, when wee shall receiue it from
such men of skill in that kynd, that in taking reasonable paines shall discouer
them more particularly then wee haue done; and than now I can makc relation of,
for want of the examples I had prouited and gathered, and are nowe lost. with
other thinges by causualtie before mentioned. 31.

Dyes of diuers kindes

There is Shoemake well knowen, and vsed in England for
blacke; the seede of an hearbe called Wasewówr; little small rootes called
Cháppacor; and the barke of the tree called by the inhabitaunts
Tangomóckonomindge: which Dies are for diuers sortes of red: their goodnesse
for our English clothes remayne yet to be proued. The inhabitants vse them
onely for the dying of hayre; and colouring of their faces, aud Mantles made of
Deare skinnes; and also for the dying of Rushes to make artificiall workes
withall in their Mattes and Baskettes; hauing no other thing besides that they
account of, apt to vse them for. If they will not proue merchantable there is
no doubt but the Planters there shall finde apte vses for them, as also for
other colours which wee knowe to be there. 32.


A thing of so great vent and vse amongst English Diers,
which cannot bee yeelded sufficiently in our owne countrey for spare of ground;
may bee planted in Virginia, there being ground enough. The grouth therof need
not to be doubted when as in the Ilandes of the Asores it groweth plentifully,
which is in thesame climate. So likewise of Madder. 33.

Suger canes.

Whe carried thither Suger canes to plant which beeing not
so well preserued as was requisit, & besides the time of the yere being
past for their setting when we [link to facsimile] arriued, wee could not make that proofe of them
as wee desired. Notwithstãding, seeing that they grow in the same climate, in
the South part of Spaine and in Barbary, our hope in reason may yet continue.
So likewise for Orenges, and Lemmons, there may be planted also Quinses. Wherebi may
grow in reasonable time if the action be diligently prosecuted, no small
commodities in Sugers, Suckets, and Marmalades.34.

Many other commodities by planting may there also bee
raised, which I leaue to your discret and gentle considerations: and many also
may bee there which yet we haue not discouered. Two more commodities of great
value one of certaintie, and the other in hope, not to be planted, but there to
be raised & in short time to be prouided and prepared, I might have
specified. So likewise of those commodities already set downe I might haue said
more; as of the particular places where they are founde and best to be planted
and prepared: by what meanes and in what reasonable space of time they might be
raised to profit and in what proportion; but because others then welwillers
might bee therewithall acquainted, not to the good of the action, I haue
wittingly omitted them: knowing that to those that are well disposed I haue
vttered, according to my promise and purpose, for this part sufficient.
[THE] [link to facsimile]35.

knowne to yeelde for victuall and sustenãce of mans
life, vsually fed vpon by the naturall inhabitants:
as also by vs during the time of our aboad.
And first of such as are sowed
and husbanded.

PAGATOWR, a kinde of graine so called by the inhabitants;
the same in the West Indies is called MAYZE: English men call it Guinney wheate
or Turkie wheate, according to the names of the countreys from whence the like
hath beene brought. The graine is about the bignesse of our ordinary English
peaze and not much different in forme and shape: but of diuers colours: some
white, some red, some yellow, and some blew. All of them yeelde a very white
and sweete flowre: beeing vsed according to his kinde it maketh a very good
bread. Wee made of the same in the countrey some mault, whereof was brued as
good ale as was to bee desired. So likewise by the help of hops therof may bee
made as good Beere. It is a graine of marueilous great increase; of a thousand,
fifteene hundred and some two thousand fold. There are three sortes, of which
two are ripe in an eleuen and twelue weekes at the most: sometimes in ten,
after the time they are set, and are then of height in stalke about sixe or
seuen foote. The other sort is ripe in fourteene, and is about ten foote high,
of the stalkes some beare foure heads, some three, some one, and two: euery
head cõtaining fiue, sixe, or seuẽ hundred graines within a fewe more or lesse.
Of these graines besides bread, the inhabitants make victuall [link to facsimile] eyther by
parching them; or seething them whole vntill they be broken; or boyling the
floure with water into a pappe. 36.

Okindgier, called by vs
Beanes, because in greatnesse & partly in shape
they are like to the Beanes in England; sauing that they are flatter, of more
diuers colours, and some pide. The leafe also of the stemme is much different.
In taste they are altogether as good as our English peaze.37.

Wickonzówr, called by vs
Peaze, in respect of the beanes for distinction
sake, because they are much lesse; although in forme they little differ; but in
goodnesse of tast much, & are far better then our English peaze. Both the
beanes and peaze are ripe in tenne weekes after they are set. They make them
victuall either by boyling them all to pieces into a broth; or boiling them
whole vntill they bee soft and beginne to breake as is vsed in England, eyther
by themselues or mixtly together: Sometime they mingle of the wheate with them.
Sometime also beeing whole soddeu, they bruse or pound them in a morter, &
thereof make loaues or lumps of dowishe bread, which they vse to eat for

Maccqwer, according to
their seuerall formes called by vs, Pompions,
Mellions, and Gourdes,
because they are of the like formes as those kindes in England. In
Virginia such of seuerall formes are of one taste
and very good, and do also spring from one seed. There are of two sorts; one is
ripe in the space of a moneth, and the other in two moneths.39.

There is an hearbe which in Dutch is called
Melden. Some of those that I describe it vnto, take
it to be a kinde of Orage; it groweth about foure or fiue foote high: of the
seede thereof they make a thicke broth, and pottage of a very good taste: of
the stalke by burning into ashes they make a kinde of salt earth, wherewithall
many vse sometimes to season their brothes; other salte they knowe not. Wee our
selues, vsed the leaues also for pothearbes.40.

There is also another great hearbe in forme of a Marigolde,
about sixe foote in height; the head with the floure is a spanne in breadth.
Some take it to bee Planta Solis: of the
seedes heereof they make both a kinde of bread and broth.41.

All the aforesaid commodities for victuall are set or
sowed, sometimes in groundes a part and seuerally by themselues; but for the
most part together in one ground mixtly: the manner thereof with the dressing
and preparing of the groũd, because I will note vnto you the fertilitie of the
soile; I thinke good briefly to describe. 42.

The ground they neuer fatten with mucke, dounge or any
other thing; neither plow nor digge it as we in England, but onely prepare it
in sort as followeth. A fewe daies before they sowe or set, the men with wooden
instruments, made almost in forme of mattockes or hoes with long handles; the
women with short peckers or parers, because they vse them sitting, of a foote
long and about fiue inches in breadth: doe onely breake the vpper part of the
ground to rayse vp the weedes, grasse, & old stubbes of corne stalkes with
their rootes. The which after a day or twoes [drying] [link to facsimile] drying in the Sunne,
being scrapte vp into many small heapes, to saue them labour for carrying them
away; they burne into ashes. ( And whereas some may thinke that they vse the
ashes for to better the grounde; I say that then they woulde eyther disperse
the ashes abroade; which wee obserued they doe not, except the heapes bee too
great: or els would take speciall care to set their corne where the ashes lie,
which also wee finde they are carelesse of.) And this is all the husbanding of
their ground that they vse. 43.

Then their setting or sowing is after this maner. First for
their corne, beginning in one corner of the plot, with a pecker they make a
hole, wherein they put foure graines with that care they touch not one another,
(about an inch asunder) and couer them with the moulde againe: and so through
out the whole plot, making such holes and vsing them after such maner: but with
this regard that they bee made in rãkes, euery ranke differing from other halfe
a fadome or a yarde, and the holes also in euery ranke, as much. By this meanes
there is a yarde spare ground betwene euery hole: where according to discretion
here and there, they set as many Beanes and Peaze: in diuers places also among
the seedes of Macócqwer,
Melden and Planta

The ground being thus set according to the rate by vs
experimented, an English Acre conteining fourtie pearches in length, and foure
in breadth, doeth there yeeld in croppe or ofcome of corne, beanes, and peaze,
at the least two hũdred London bushelles: besides the Macócqwer, Melden, and
Planta Solis: When as in England fourtie
bushelles of our wheate yeelded out of such an acre is thought to be much.45.

I thought also good to note this vnto you, if you which
shall inhabite and plant there, maie know how specially that countrey corne is
there to be preferred before ours: Besides the manifold waies in applying it to
victuall, the increase is so much that small labour and paines is needful in
respect that must be vsed for ours. For this I can assure you that according to
the rate we haue made proofe of, one man may prepare and husbane so much
grounde (hauing once borne corne before) with lesse thẽ foure and twentie
houres labour, as shall yeelde him victuall in a large proportiõ for a twelue
mõeth, if hee haue nothing else, but that which the same groũd will yeelde, and
of that kinde onelie which I haue before spoken of: the saide groũd being also
but of fiue and twentie yards square. And if neede require, but that there is
ground enough, there might be raised out of one and the selfsame ground two
haruestes or ofcomes; for they sowe or set and may at anie time when they
thinke good from the middest of March vntill the ende of Iune: so that they
also set when they haue eaten of their first croppe. In some places of the
countrey notwithstanding they haue two haruests, as we haue heard, out of one
and the same ground. 46.

For English corne neuertheles whether to vse or not to vse
it, you that inhabite maie do as you shall haue farther cause to thinke best.
Of the grouth you need not to doubt: for barlie, oates and peaze, we haue seene
proof of, not beeing purposely [link to facsimile] sowen but fallen casually in the worst sort of
ground, and yet to be as faire as any we haue euer seene here in England. But
of wheat because it was musty and hat taken salt water wee could make no
triall: and of rye we had none. Thus much haue I digressed and I hope not
vnnecessarily: nowe will I returne againe to my course and intreate of that
which yet remaineth appertaining to this Chapter. 47.

There is an herbe which is sowed a part by it selfe &
is called by the inhabitants Vppówoc: In the West Indies it hath diuers names,
according to the seuerall places & countries where it groweth and is vsed:
The Spaniardes generally call it Tobacco. The leaues thereof being dried and
brought into powder: they vse to take the fume or smoke thereof by sucking it
through pipes made of claie into their stomacke and heade; from whence it
purgeth superfluous fleame & other grosse humors, openeth all the pores
& passages of the body: by which meanes the vse thereof, not only
preserueth the body from obstructiõs; but also if any be, so that they haue not
beene of too long continuance, in short time breaketh them: wherby their bodies
are notably preserued in health, & know not many greeuous diseases
wherewithall wee in England are oftentimes afflicted. 48.

The Vppówoc us of so precious estimation amongest then,
that they thinke their gods are maruelously delighted therwith: Wherupon
sometime they make hallowed fires & cast some of the pouder therein for a
sacrifice: being in a storme vppon the waters, to pacifie their gods, they cast
some vp into the aire and into the water: so a weare for fish being newly set
vp, they cast some therein and into the aire: also after an escape of danger,
they cast some into the aire likewise: but all done with strange gestures,
stamping, somtime dauncing, clapping of hands, holding vp of hands, &
staring vp into rhe heauens, vttering therewithal and chattering strange words
& noises.49.

We ourselues during the time we were there vsed to suck it
after their maner, as also since our returne, & haue found manie rare and
wonderful experiments of the vertues thereof; of which the relation woulde
require a volume by it selfe: the vse of it by so manie of late, men &
women of great calling as else, and some learned Phisitions also, is sufficient
witnes. 50.

And these are all the commodities for sustenance of life
that I know and can remember they vse to husband: all else that followe are
founde growing naturally or wilde. 51.

Of Rootes.

OPENAVK are a kind of roots of round forme, some of the
bignes of walnuts, some far greater, which are found in moist & marish
grounds growing many together one by another in ropes, or as thogh they were
fastnened with a string. Being boiled or sodden they are very good meate. 52.

OKEEPENAVK are also of round shape, found in dry grounds:
some are [of the] [link to facsimile] of the bignes of a mans head. They are to be eaten as they
are taken out of the ground, for by reason of their drinesse they will neither
roste nor seeth. Their tast is not so good as of the former rootes,
notwithstanding for want of bread & somtimes for varietie the inhabitants
vse to eate them with fish or flesh, and in my iudgement they doe as well as
the houshold bread made of rie heere in England. 53.

Kaishúcpenauk a white
kind of roots about the bignes of hen egs & nere of that forme: their tast
was not so good to our seeming as of the other, and therfore their place and
manner of growing not so much cared for by vs: the inhabitãts notwithstanding
vsed to boile & eate many. 54.

Tsinaw a kind of roote
much like vnto the which in England is called the China root brought from the
East Indies. And we know not anie thing to the cõtrary but that it maie be of
the same kind. These roots grow manie together in great clusters and doe bring
foorth a brier stalke, but the leafe in shape far vnlike; which beeing
supported by the trees it groweth neerest vnto, wil reach or climbe to the top
of the highest. From these roots while they be new or fresh beeing chopt into
small pieces & stampt, is strained with water a iuice that maketh bread,
& also being boiled, a very good spoonemeate in maner of a gelly, and is
much better in tast if it bee tempered with oyle. This Tsinaw is not of that sort which by some was caused to
be brought into England for the China roote, for it
was discouered since, and is in vfe as is aforesaide: but that which was
brought hither is not yet knowne neither by vs nor by the inhabitants to serue
for any vse or purpose; although the rootes in shape are very like. 55.

Coscshaw, some of our
company tooke to bee that kinde of roote which the Spaniards in the West Indies
call Cassauy, whereupon also many called it by
that name: it groweth in very muddie pooles and moist groundes. Being dressed
according to the countrey maner, it maketh a good bread, and also a good
sponemeate, and is vsed very much by the inhabitants: The iuice of this root is
poison, and therefore heede must be taken before any thing be made therewithal:
Either the rootes must bee first sliced and dried in the Sunne, or by the fire,
and then being pounded into floure wil make good bread: or els while they are
greene they are to bee pared, cut into pieces and stampt; loues of the same to
be laid neere or ouer the fire vntill it be soure, and then being well pounded
againe, bread, or sponemeate very good in taste, and holsome may be made
thereof. 56.

Habascon is a roote of
hoat taste almost of the forme and bignesse of a Parseneepe, of it selfe it is
no victuall, but onely a helpe beeing boiled together with other meates.57.

There are also Leekes
differeing little from ours in England that grow in many places of the
countrey, of which, when we came in places where, wee gathered and eate many,
but the naturall inhabitants neuer. [link to facsimile]58.

Of Fruites.

CHESTNVTS, there are in diuers places great store: some
they vse to eate rawe, some they stampe and boile to make spoonemeate, and with
some being sodden they make such a manner of dowebread as they vfe of their
beanes before mentioned. 59.

WALNVTS: There are two kindes of Walnuts, and of then
infinit store: In many places where very great woods for many miles together
the third part of trees are walnuttrees. The one kind is of the same taste and
forme or litle differing from ours of England, but that they are harder and
thicker shelled: the other is greater and hath a verie ragged and harde shell:
but the kernell great, verie oylie and sweete. Besides their eating of them
after our ordinarie maner, they breake them with stones and pound them in
morters with water to make a milk which they vse to put into some sorts of
their spoonmeate; also among their sodde wheat, peaze, beanes and pompions
which maketh them haue a farre more pleasant taste. 60.

MEDLARS a kind of verie good fruit, so called by vs
chieflie for these respectes: first in that they are not good vntill they be
rotten: then in that they open at the head as our medlars, and are about the
same bignesse: otherwise in taste and colour they are farre differẽt: for they
are as red as cheries and very sweet: but whereas the cherie is sharpe sweet,
they are lushious sweet.. 61.

METAQVESVNNAVK, a kinde of pleasaunt fruite almost of the
shape & bignes of English peares, but that they are of a perfect red colour
as well within as without. They grow on a plant whose leaues are verie thicke
and full of prickles as sharpe as needles. Some that haue bin in the Indies,
where they haue seen that kind of red die of great price which is called
Cochinile to grow, doe describe his plant right like vnto this of
Metaquesúnnauk but whether it be the true Cochinile or a bastard or wilde kind,
it cannot yet be certified; seeing that also as I heard, Cochinile is not of
the fruite but founde on the leaues of the plant; which leaues for such matter
we haue not so specially obserued.62.

GRAPES there are of two sorts which I mentioned in the
marchantable cõmodities.63.

STRABERIES there are as good & as great as those
which we haue in our English gardens. 64.

MVLBERIES, Applecrabs, Hurts or Hurtleberies, such as wee
haue in England.65.

SACQVENVMMENER a kinde of berries almost like vnto capres
but somewhat greater which grow together in clusters vpon a plant or herb that
is found in shalow waters: being boiled eight or nine hours according to their
kind are very good meate and holesome, otherwise if they be eaten they will
make a man for the time franticke or extremely sicke.66.

There is a kind of reed which beareth a seed almost like
vnto our rie or wheat, & being boiled is good meate. [In] [link to facsimile]67.

In our trauailes in some places wee founde wilde peaze
like vnto ours in England but that they were lesse, which are also good

Of a kinde of fruite or berrie in the forme of

There is a kind of berrie or acorne, of which there are
fiue sorts that grow on seuerall kinds of trees; the one is called
Sagatémener, the second Osámener, the third Pummuckóner
. These kind of acorns they vse to drie vpon hurdles made of reeds
with fire vnderneath almost after the maner as we dry malt in England. When
they are to be vsed they first water them vntil they be soft & then being
sod they make a good victuall, either to eate so simply, or els being also
pounded, to make loaues or lumpes of bread. These be also the three kinds of
which, I said before, the inhabitants vsed to make sweet oyle 69.

An other sort is called Sapúmmener which being boiled or
parched doth eate and taste like vnto chestnuts. They sometime also make bread
of this sort.70.

The fifth sort is called Mangúmmenauk, and is the acorne
of their kind of oake, the which beeing dried after the maner of the first
sortes, and afterward watered they boile them, & their seruants or sometime
the chiefe thẽselues, either for variety or for want of bread, doe eate them
with their fish or flesh. 71.

Of Beastes.

Deare, in some places there
are great store: neere vnto the sea coast they are of the ordinarie bignes as
ours in England, & some lesse: but further vp into the countrey where there
is better feed they are greater: they differ from ours onely in this, their
tailes are longer and the snags of their hornes looke backward. 72.

Conies, Those that we haue
seen & al that we can heare of are of a grey colour like vnto hares: in
some places there are such plentie that all the people of some townes make them
mantles of the furre or flue of the skinnes of those they vsually take. 73.

Saquenúckot &
Maquówoc; two kindes of small beastes greater
then conies which are very good meat. We neuer tooke any of them our selves,
but sometime eate of such as the inhabitants had taken & brought vnto vs.

Squirels which are of a grey colour,
we haue taken & eaten..

Beares which are all of black colour. The beares of this
countrey are good meat; the inhabitants in time of winter do use to take &
eate maie; so also somtime did wee. They are taken comonlie in this sort. In
some Ilands or places where they are, being hunted for, as soone as they haue
spiall of a man they presently run awaie, & then being chased they clime
and get vp the next tree they can, from whence with arrowes they are shot downe
starke dead, or with those wounds that they may after easily bekilled; we
sometime shotte them downe with our caleeuers. [link to facsimile]75.

I haue the names of eight & twenty seuerall sortes of
beasts which I haue heard of to be here and there dispersed in the countrie,
especially in the maine: of which there are only twelue kinds that we haue yet
discouered, & of those that be good meat we know only them before
mentioned. The inhabitãts somtime kil the Lyon & eat him: & we somtime
as they came to our hands of their Wolues or woluish Dogges, which I haue not
set downe for good meat, least that some woulde vnderstand my iudgement therin
to be more simple than needeth, although I could alleage the difference in
taste of those kindes from ours, which by some of our company haue been
experimented in both.76.

Of Foule.

Turkie cockes and
Turkie hennes: Stockdoues: Partridges: Cranes:
: & in winter great store of Swannes & Geese. Of al
sortes of foule I haue the names in the countrie language of fourescore and
sixe of which number besides those that be named, we haue taken, eaten, &
haue the pictures as they were there drawne with the names of the inhabitaunts
of seuerall strange sortes of water foule eight, and seuenteene kindes more of
land foul, although wee haue seen and eaten of many more, which for want of
leasure there for the purpose coulde not bee pictured: and after wee are better
furnished and stored vpon further discouery, with their strange beastes, fishe,
trees, plants, and hearbes, they shall bee also published. 77.

There are also Parats, Faulcons,
& Marlin haukes
, which although with vs they bee not vsed for meate,
yet for other causes I thought good to mention. 78.

Of Fishe.

For foure monthes of the yeere, February, March, Aprill
and May, there are plentie of Sturgeons: And also in
the same monethes of Herrings, some of the ordinary
bignesse as ours in England, but the most part farre greater, of eighteene,
twentie inches, and some two foote in length and better; both these kindes of
fishe in those monethes are most plentifull, and in best season, which wee
founde to bee most delicate and pleasaunt meate.79.

There are also Troutes, Porpoises,
Rayes, Oldwiues, Mullets, Plaice, and very many other sortes of
excellent good fish, which we haue taken & eaten, whose names I know not
but in the countrey language; wee haue of twelue sorts more the pictures as
they were drawn in the countrey with their names. 80.

The inhabitants vse to take then two maner of wayes, the
one is by a kind of wear made of reedes which in that countrey are very strong.
The other way which is more strange, is with poles make sharpe at one end, by
shooting them into the fish after the maner as Irishmen cast dartes; either as
they are rowing in their boates or els as they are wading in the shallowes for
the purpose. [There] [link to facsimile]81.

There are also in many places plentie of these kindes
which follow. 82.

Sea crabbes, such as we haue
in England.83.

Oystres, some very great, and
some small; some rounde and some of a long shape: They are founde both in salt
water and brackish, and those that we had out of salt water are far better than
the other as in our owne countrey.84.

Also Muscles,
Scalopes, Periwinkles,
and Creuises. 85.

Seekanauk, a kind of crustie shell fishe which is good
meate, about a foote in breadth, hauing a crustie tayle, many legges like a
crab; and her eyes in her backe. They are founde in shallowes of salt waters;
and sometime on the shoare.86.

There are many Tortoyses both
of lande and sea kinde, their backes & bellies are shelled very thicke;
their head, feete, and taile, which are in appearance, seeme ougly as though
they were members of a serpent or venemous: but notwithstanding they are very
good meate, as also their egges. Some haue bene founde of a yard in bredth and

And thus haue I made relation of all sortes of victuall
that we fed vpon for the time we were in Virginia,
as also the inhabitants themselues, as farre foorth as I knowe and can remember
or that are specially worthy to bee remembred. [link to facsimile]88.

full for those which shall plant and inhabit to
know of; with a description of the nature
and manners of the people of
the countrey.

Of commodities for building and other
necessary uses.

THose other things which I am more to make rehearsall
of, are such as concerne building, and other mechanicall necessarie vses; as
diuers sortes of trees for house & ship timber, and other vses els: Also
lime, stone, and brick, least that being not mentioned some might haue bene
doubted of, or by some that are malicious reported the contrary.89.

Okes, there are as faire,
straight, tall, and as good timber as any can be, and also great store, and in
some places very great.90.

Walnut trees, as I haue saide
before very many, some haue bene seen excellent faire timber of foure &
fiue fadome, & aboue fourescore foot streight without bough91.

Firre trees fit for masts of
ships, some very tall & great. [Rakíock,] [link to facsimile]92.

Rakiock, a kind of trees
so called that are sweet wood of which the inhabitans that were neere vnto vs
doe commonly make their boats or Canoes of the form of trowes; only with the
helpe of fire, harchets of stones, and shels; we haue known some so great being
made in that sort of one tree that they haue carried well xx. men at once,
besides much baggage: the timber being great, tal, streight, soft, light, &
yet tough enough I thinke (besides other vses) to be fit also for masts of

Cedar, a sweet wood good for
seelings, Chests, Boxes, Bedsteedes, Lutes, Virginals, and many things els, as
I haue also said before. Some of our company which haue wandered in some places
where I haue not bene, haue made certaine affirmation of Cyprus which for such
and other excellent vses, is also a wood of price and no small estimation.94.

Maple, and also Wich-hazle;
wherof the inhabitants vse to make their bowes. 95.

Holly a necessary thing for
the making of birdlime.96.

Willowes good for the making
of weares and weeles to take fish after the English manner, although the
inhabitants vse only reedes, which because they are so strong as also flexible,
do serue for that turne very well and sufficiently.97.

Beech and Ashe, good for caske, hoopes: and if neede require, plow
worke, as also for many things els.98.


Sassafras trees.100.

Ascopo a kinde of tree
very like vnto Lawrell, the barke is hoat in tast and spicie, it is very like
to that tree which Monardus describeth to bee Cassia Lignea of the West

There are many other strange trees whose names I knowe
not but in the Virginian language, of which I am not
nowe able, neither is it so conuenient for the present to trouble you with
particular relatiõ: seeing that for timber and other necessary vses I haue
named sufficient: And of many of the rest but that they may be applied to good
vse, I know no cause to doubt. 102.

Now for Stone, Bricke and Lime, thus it is. Neere vnto
the Sea coast where wee dwelt, there are no kind of stones to bee found (except
a fewe small pebbles about foure miles off) but such as haue bene brought from
farther out of the maine. In some of our voiages wee haue seene diuers hard
raggie stones, great pebbles, and a kinde of grey stone like vnto marble, of
which the inhabitants make their hatchets to cleeue wood. Vpon inquirie wee
heard that a little further vp into the Countrey were all sortes verie many,
although of Quarries they are ignorant, neither haue they vse of any store
whereupon they should haue occasion to seeke any. For if euerie housholde haue
one or two to cracke Nuttes, grinde shelles, whet copper, and sometimes other
stones for hatchets, they haue enough: neither vse they any digging, but onely
for graues about three foote deepe: and therefore no maruaile that they know
neither Quarries, nor lime stones, which both may bee in places neerer than
they wot of. [link to facsimile]103.

In the meane time vntill there bee discouerie of
sufficient store in some place or other cõuenient, the want of you which are
and shalbe the planters therein may be as well supplied by Bricke: for the
making whereof in diuers places of the countrey there is clay both excellent
good, and plentie; and also by lime made of Oister shels, and of others burnt,
after the maner as they vse in the Iles of Tenet and Shepy, and also in diuers
other places of England: Which kinde of lime is well knowne to bee as good as
any other. And of Oister shels there is plentie enough: for besides diuers
other particular places where are abundance, there is one shallowe sounde along
the coast, where for the space of many miles together in length, and two or
three miles in breadth, the grounde is nothing els beeing but halfe a foote or
a foote vnder water for the most part.104.

This much can I say further more of stones, that about
120. miles from our fort neere the water in the side of a hill was founde by a
Gentleman of our company, a great veine of hard ragge stones, which I thought
good to remember vnto you. 105.

Of the nature and manners of the people

It resteth I speake a word or two of the naturall
inhabitants, their natures and maners, leauing large discourse thereof vntill
time more conuenient hereafter: nowe onely so farre foorth, as that you may
know, how that they in respect of troubling our inhabiting and planting, are
not to be feared; but that they shall haue cause both to feare and loue vs,
that shall inhabite with them.106.

They are a people clothed with loose mantles made of
Deere skins, & aprons of the same rounde about their middles; all els
naked; of such as difference of statures only as wee in England; hauing no edge
tooles or weapons of yron or steele to offend vs withall, neither know they how
to make any: those weapõs that they haue, are onlie bowes made of Witch hazle,
& arrowes of reeds; flat edged truncheons also of wood about a yard long,
neither haue they any thing to defend themselues but targets made of barcks;
and some armours made of stickes wickered together with thread.107.

Their townes are but small, & neere the sea coast
but few, some cõtaining but 10. or 12. houses: some 20. the greatest that we
haue seene haue bene but of 30. houses: if they be walled it is only done with
barks of trees made fast to stakes, or els with poles onely fixed vpright and
close one by another. 108.

Their houses are made of small poles made fast at the
tops in rounde forme after the maner as is vsed in many arbories in our gardens
of England, in most townes couered with barkes, and in some with artificiall
mattes made of long rushes; from the tops of the houses downe to the ground.
The length of them is commonly double to the breadth, in some places they are
but 12. and 16. yardes long, and in other some wee haue seene of foure and
twentie. [In] [link to facsimile]109.

In some places of the countrey one onely towne belongeth
to the gouernment of a Wiróans or chiefe
Lorde; in other some two or three, in some sixe, eight, & more; the
greatest Wiróans that yet we had dealing with
had but eighteene townes in his gouernmẽt, and able to make not aboue seuen or
eight hundred fighting men at the most: The language of euery gouernment is
different from any other, and the farther they are distant the greater is the

Their maner of warres amongst themselues is either by
sudden surprising one an other most commonly about the dawning of the day, or
moone light; or els by ambushes, or some suttle deuises: Set battels are very
rare, except if fall out where there are many trees, where eyther part may haue
some hope of defence, after the deliuerie of euery arrow, in leaping behind
some or other.111.

If there fall out any warres betweẽ vs & them; what
their fight is likely to bee, we hauing aduantages against them so many maner
of waies, as by our discipline, our strange weapons and deuises els; especially
by ordinance great and small, it may be easily imagined; by the experience we
haue had in some places, the turning vp of their heeles against vs in running
away was their best defence.112.

In respect of vs they are a people poore, and for want
of skill and iudgement in the knowledge and vse of our things, doe esteeme our
trifles before thinges of greater value: Notwithstanding in their proper manner
considering the want of such meanes as we haue, they seeme very ingenious; For
although they haue no such tooles, nor any such craftes, sciences and artes as
wee; yet in those thinges they doe, they shewe excellencie of wit. And by howe
much they vpon due consideration shall finde our manner of knowledges and
craftes to exceede theirs in perfection, and speed for doing or execution, by
so much the more is it probable that they shoulde desire our friendships &
loue, and haue the greater respect for pleasing and obeying vs. Whereby may bee
hoped if meanes of good gouernment bee vsed, that they may in short time be
brought to ciuilitie, and the imbracing of true religion.113.

Some religion they haue alreadie, which although it be
farre from the truth, yet beyng as it is, there is hope it may bee the easier
and sooner reformed.114.

They beleeue that there are many Gods which they call
Mantóac, but of different sortes and degrees; one onely chiefe and great God,
which hath bene from all eternitie. Who as they affirme when hee purposed to
make the worlde, made first other goddes of a principall order to bee as meanes
and instruments to bee vsed in the creation and gouernment to follow; and after
the Sunne, Moone, and Starres, as pettie goddes and the instruments of the
other order more principall. First they say were made waters, out of which by
the gods was made all diuersitie of creatures that are visible or inuisible.

For mankind they say a woman was made first, which by
the woorking of one of the goddes, conceiued and brought foorth children: And
in such sort they say they had their beginning. [link to facsimile]116.

But how manie yeeres or ages haue passed since, they say
they can make no relation, hauing no letters nor other such meanes as we to
keepe recordes of the particularities of times past, but onelie tradition from
father to sonne. 117.

They thinke that all the gods are of humane shape, &
therfore they represent them by images in the formes of men, which they call
Kewasowok one alone is called
Kewás; Them they place in houses appropriate
or temples which they call Mathicómuck; Where
they woorship, praie, sing, and make manie times offerings vnto them. In some
Machicómuck we haue seene but on
Kewas, in some two, and in other some three;
The common sort thinke them to be also gods.118.

They beleeue also the immortalitie of the soule, that
after this life as soone as the soule is departed from the bodie according to
the workes it hath done, it is eyther carried to heauẽ the habitacle of gods,
there to enioy perpetuall blisse and happiness, or els to a great pitte or
hole, which they thinke to bee in the furthest partes of their part of the
worlde towarde the sunne set, there to burne continually: the place they call

For the confirmation of this opinion, they tolde mee two
stories of two men that had been lately dead and reuiued againe, the one
happened but few yeres before our comming in the countrey of a wicked man which
hauing beene dead and buried, the next day the earth of the graue beeing seene
to moue, was takẽ vp againe; Who made declaration where his soule had beene,
that is to saie very neere entring into Popogusso, had not one of the gods saued him & gaue
him leaue to returne againe, and teach his friends what they should doe to
auiod that terrible place of tormenr. 120.

The other happened in the same yeere wee were there, but
in a towne that was threescore miles from vs, and it was tolde mee for straunge
newes that one beeing dead, buried and taken vp againe as the first, shewed
that although his bodie had lien dead in the graue, yet his soule was aliue,
and had trauailed farre in a long broade waie, on both sides whereof grewe most
delicate and pleasaũt trees, bearing more rare and excellent fruites then euer
hee had seene before or was able to expresse, and at length came to most braue
and faire houses, neere which hee met his father, that had beene dead before,
who gaue him great charge to goe backe againe and shew his friendes what good
they were to doe to enioy the pleasures of that place, which when he had done
he should after come againe.121.

What subtilty soeuer be in the Wiroances and Priestes, this opinion worketh so much in
manie of the common and simple sort of people that it maketh them haue great
respect to their Gouernours, and also great care what they do, to auoid torment
after death, and to enjoy blisse; although nothwithstanding there is punishment
ordained for malefactours, as stealers, whoremoongers, and other sortes of
wicked doers; some punished with death, some with forfeitures, some with
beating, according to the greatnes of the factes.122.

And this is the summe of their religion, which I learned
by hauing special fa-[miliarity] [link to facsimile] miliarity with some of their priestes. Wherein
they were not so sure grounded, nor gaue such credite to their traditions and
stories but through conuersing with vs they were brought into great doubts of
their owne, and no small admiratiõ of ours, with earnest desire in many, to
learne more than we had meanes for want of perfect vtterance in their language
to expresse. 123.

Most thinges they sawe with vs, as Mathematicall
instruments, sea compasses, the vertue of the loadstone in drawing yron, a
perspectiue glasse whereby was shewed manie strange sightes, burning glasses,
wildefire woorkes, gunnes, bookes, writing and reading, spring clocks that
seeme to goe of themselues, and manie other thinges that wee had, were so
straunge vnto them, and so farre exceeded their capacities to comprehend the
reason and meanes how they should be made and done, that they thought they were
rather the works of gods then of men, or at the leastwise they had bin giuen
and taught vs of the gods. Which made manie of them to haue such opinions of
vs, as that if they knew not the trueth of god and religion already, it was
rather to be had from vs, whom God so specially loued then from a people that
were so simple, as they found themselues to be in comparison of vs. Whereupon
greater credite was giuen vnto that we spake of concerning such matters. 124.

Manie times and in euery towne where I came, according
as I was able, I made declaration of the contentes of the Bible; that therein
was set foorth the true and onelie GOD, and his mightie woorkes, that therein
was contayned the true doctrine of saluation through Christ, which manie
particularities of Miracles and chiefe poyntes of religion, as I was able then
to vtter, and thought fitte for the time. And although I told them the booke
materially & of itself was not of anie such vertue, as I thought they did
conceiue, but onely the doctrine therein cõtained; yet would many be glad to
touch it, to embrace it, to kisse it, to hold it to their brests and heades,
and stroke ouer all their bodie with it; to shew their hungrie desire of that
knowledge which was spoken of.125.

The Wiroans with whom
we dwelt called Wingina, and many of his
people would be glad many times to be with vs at our praiers, and many times
call vpon vs both in his owne towne, as also in others whither he sometimes
accompanied vs, to pray and sing Psalmes; hoping thereby to bee partaker in the
same effectes which wee by that meanes also expected.126.

Twise this Wiroans was
so greiuously sicke that he was like to die, and as hee laie languishing,
doubting of anie helpe by his owne priestes, and thinking he was in such
daunger for offending vs and thereby our god, sent for some of vs to praie and
bee a meanes to our God that it would please him either that he might liue or
after death dwell with him in blisse; so likewise were the requestes of manie
others in the like case.127.

On a time also when their corne began to wither by
reason of a drouth which happened extraordinarily, fearing that it had come to
passe by reason that in [link to facsimile] some thing they had displeased vs, many woulde come to
vs & desire vs to praie to our God of England, that he would perserue their
corne, promising that when it was ripe we also should be partakers of the

There could at no time happen any strange sicknesse,
losses, hurtes, or any other crosse vnto them, but that they would impute to vs
the cause or meanes therof for offending or not pleasing vs.129.

One other rare and strange accident, leauing others,
will I mention before I ende, which mooued the whole countrey that either knew
or hearde of vs, to haue vs in wonderfull admiration. 130.

There was no towne where we had any subtile deuise
practised against vs, we leauing it vnpunished or not reuenged (because wee
sought by all meanes possible to win them by gentlenesse) but that within a few
dayes after our departure from euerie such towne, the people began to die very
fast, and many in short space; in some townes about twentie, in some fourtie,
in some sixtie, & in one sixe score, which in trueth was very manie in
respect of their numbers. This happened in no place that wee could learne but
where wee had bene, where they vsed some practise against vs, and after such
time; The disease also so strange, that they neither knew what it was, nor how
to cure it; the like by the report of the oldest men in the countrey neuer
happened before, time out of minde. A thing specially obserued by vs as also by
the naturall inhabitants themselues.131.

Insomuch that when some of the inhabitantes which were
our friends & especially the Wiroans Wingina had obserued such effects in
foure or fiue towns to follow their wicked practises, they were preswaded that
it was the worke of our God through our meanes, and that wee by him might kil
and slai whom we would without weapons and not come neere them.132.

And thereupon when it had happened that they had
vnderstanding that any of their enemies had abused vs in our iourneyes, hearing
that wee had wrought no reuenge with our weapons, & fearing vpon some cause
the matter should so rest: did come and intreate vs that we woulde bee a meanes
to our God that they as others that had dealt ill with vs might in like sort
die; alleaging howe much it would be for our credite and profite, as also
theirs; and hoping furthermore that we would do so much at their requests in
respect of the friendship we professe them.133.

Whose entreaties although wee shewed that they were
vngodlie, affirming that our God would not subiect him selfe to anie such
praiers and requestes of mẽ: that in deede all thinges haue beene and were to
be done according to his good pleasure as he had ordained: ãd that we to shew
ourselues his true seruãts ought rather to make petition for the contrarie,
that they with them might liue together with vs, bee made partakers of his
truth & serue him in righteousnes; but notwitstanding in such sort, that
wee referre that as all other thinges, to bee done according to his diuine will
& pleasure, ãd as by his wisedome he had ordained to be best. [Yet] [link to facsimile]134.

Yet because the effect fell out so sodainly and shortly
after according to their desires, they thought neuertheless it came to passe by
our meanes, and that we in vsing such speeches vnto them did but dissemble in
the matter, and therefore came vnto vs to giue vs thankes in their manner that
although wee satisfied them not in promise, yet in deedes and effect we had
fulfilled their desires.135.

This maruelous accident in all the countrie wrought so
strange opinions of vs, that some people could not tel whether to think vs gods
or men, and the rather because that all the space of their sicknesse, there was
no man of ours knowne to die, or that was specially sicke: they noted also that
we had no women amongst vs, neither that we did care for any of theirs.136.

Some therefore were of opinion that wee were not borne
of women, and therefore not mortall, but that wee were men of an old generation
many yeeres past then risen againe to immortalitie. 137.

Some woulde likewise seeme to prophesie that there were
more of our generation yet to come, to kill theirs and take their places, as
some thought the purpose was by that which was already done.138.

Those that were immediatly to come after vs they
imagined to be in the aire, yet inuisible & without bodies, & that they
by our intreaty & for the loue of vs did make the people to die in that
sort as they did by shooting inuisible bullets into them.139.

To confirme this opinion their phisitions to excuse
their ignorance in curing the disease, would not be ashemed to say, but
earnestly make the simple people beleue, that the strings of blood that they
sucked out of the sicke bodies, were the strings wherewithal the inuisible
bullets were tied and cast.140.

Some also thought that we shot them ourselues out of our
pieces from the place where we dwelt, and killed the people in any such towne
that had offended vs as we listed, how farre distant from vs soeuer it

And other some saide that it was the speciall woorke of
God for our sakes, as wee our selues haue cause in some sorte to thinke no
lesse, whatsoeuer some doe or maie imagine to the contrarie, specially some
Astrologers knowing of the Eclipse of the Sunne which wee saw the same yeere
before in our voyage thytherward, which vnto them appeared very terrible. And
also of a Comet which beganne to appeare but a few daies before the beginning
of the said sicknesse. But to exclude them from being the speciall an accident,
there are farther reasons then I thinke fit at this present to bee

These their opinions I haue set downe the more at large
that it may appeare vnto you that there is good hope they may be brought
through discreet dealing and gouernement to the imbracing of the trueth, and
consequently to honour, obey, feare and loue vs. [link to facsimile]143.

And although some of our companie towardes the ende of
the yeare, shewed themselues too fierce, in slaying some of the people, in some
towns, vpon causes that on our part, might easily enough haue been borne
withall: yet notwithstanding because it was on their part iustly deserued, the
alteration of their opinions generally & for the most part concerning vs is
the lesse to bee doubted. And whatsoeuer els they may be, by carefulnesse of
our selues neede nothing at all to be feared. 143.

The best neuerthelesse in this as in all actions besides
is to be endeuoured and hoped, & of the worst that may happen notice to bee
taken with consideration, and as much as may be eschewed. [The] [link to facsimile]144.

The Conclusion.

NOW I haue as I hope made relation not of so fewe and
smal things but that the countrey of men that are indifferent & wel
disposed maie be sufficiently liked: If there were no more knowen then I haue
mentioned, which doubtlesse and in great reason is nothing to that which
remaineth to bee discouered, neither the soile, nor commodities. As we haue
reason so to gather by the difference we found in our trauails: for although
all which I haue before spoken of, haue bin discouered & experiemented not
far from the sea coast where was our abode & most of our trauailing: yet
somtimes as we made our iourneies farther into the maine and countrey; we found
the soyle to bee fatter; the trees greater and to growe thinner; the grounde
more firme and deeper mould; more and larger champions; finer grasse and as
good as euer we saw any in England; in some places rockie and farre more high
and hillie ground; more plentie of their fruites; more abondance of beastes;
the more inhabited with people, and of greater pollicie & larger dominions,
with greater townes and houses.145.

Why may wee not then looke for in good hope from the
inner parts of more and greater plentie, as well of other things, as of those
which wee haue alreadie discouered? Vnto the Spaniardes happened the like in
discouering the maine of the West Indies. The maine also of this countrey of
Virginia, extending some wayes so many hundreds of
leagues, as otherwise then by the relation of the inhabitants wee haue most
certaine knowledge of, where yet no Christian Prince hath any possession or
dealing, cannot but yeeld many kinds of excellent commodities, which we in our
discouerie haue not yet seene.146.

What hope there is els to be gathered of the nature of
the climate, being answerable to the Iland of Iapan,
the land of China, Persia, Jury, the Ilandes of
Cyprus and Candy, the
South parts Greece, Italy, and Spaine, and of many other notable and famous countreis,
because I meane not to be tedious, I leaue to your owne consideration.147.

Whereby also the excellent temperature of the ayre there
at all seasons, much warmer then in England, and neuer so violently hot, as
sometimes is vnder & between the Tropikes, or neere them; cannot bee
vnknowne vnto you without farther relation.148.

For the holsomnesse thereof I neede to say but thus
much: that for all the want of prouision, as first of English victuall;
excepting for twentie daies, wee liued only by drinking water and by the
victuall of the countrey, of which some sorts were very straunge vnto vs, and
might haue bene thought to haue altered our temperatures in such sort as to
haue brought vs into some greeuous and dãgerous diseases: secondly the wãt of
English meanes, for the taking of beastes, fishe, and foule, which by the helpe
only of the inhabitants and their meanes, coulde not bee so suddenly [link to facsimile] and easily
prouided for vs, nor in so great numbers & quantities, nor of that choise
as otherwise might haue bene to our better satisfaction and contentment. Some
want also wee had of clothes. Furthermore, in all our trauailes which were most
speciall and often in the time of winter, our lodging was in the open aire vpon
the grounde. And yet I say for all this, there were but foure of our whole
company (being one hundred and eight) that died all the yeere and that but at
the latter ende thereof and vpon none of the aforesaide causes. For all foure
especially three were feeble, weake, and sickly persons before euer they came
thither, and those that knewe them much marueyled that they liued so long
beeing in that case, or had aduentured to trauaile.149.

Seing therefore the ayre there is so temperate and
holsome, the soyle so fertile and yeelding such commodities as I haue before
mentioned, the voyage also thither to and fro beeing sufficiently experimented,
to bee perfourmed thrise a yeere with ease and at any season thereof: And the
dealing of Sir Walter Raleigh so liberall in large
giuing and graũting lande there, as is alreadie knowen, with many helpes and
furtherances els: (The least that hee hath graunted hath beene fiue hundred
acres to a man onely for the aduenture of his person): I hope there reamine no
cause whereby the action should be misliked.150.

If that those which shall thither trauaile to inhabite
and plant bee but reasonably prouided for the first yere as those are which
were transported the last, and beeing there doe vse but that diligence and care
as is requisite, and as they may with eese: There is no doubt but for the time
following they may haue victuals that is excellent good and plentie enough;
some more Englishe sortes of cattaile also hereafter, as some haue bene before,
and are there yet remaining, may and shall bee God willing thiter transported:
So likewise our kinde of fruites, rootes, and hearbes may bee there planted and
sowed, as some haue bene alreadie, and proue wel: And in short time also they
may raise of those sortes of commodities which I haue spoken of as shall both
enrich theselues, as also others that shall deale with them.151.

And this is all the fruites of our labours, that I haue
thought necessary to aduertise you of at this present: what els concerneth the
nature and manners of the inhabitants of Virginia:
The number with the particularities of the voyages thither made; and of the
actions of such that haue bene by Sir Walter Raleigh
therein and there imployed, many worthy to bee remembered; as of the first
discouerers of the Countrey: of our generall for the time Sir Richard Greinuile; and after his departure, of our
Gouernour there Master Rafe Lane; with diuers other
directed and imployed vnder theyr gouernement: Of the Captaynes and Masters of
the voyages made since for transporation; of the Gouernour and assistants of
those alredie transported, as of many persons, accidẽts, and thinges els, I
haue ready in a discour-[se by] [link to facsimile] se by it selfe in maner of a Chronicle according
to the course of times, and when time shall bee thought conuenient shall be
also published.152.

This referring my relation to your fauourable
constructions, expecting good successe of the action, from him which is to be
acknowledged the authour and gouernour not only of this but of all things els,
I take my leaue of you, this moneth of Februarii, 1588.153.

F I N I S.

[link to facsimile]

sent thither in the years of our Lorde 1585. att the speciall charge and direction of
the Honourable SIR WALTER RALEGH Knigt Lord Warden
of the stannaries in the duchies of Corenwal and Oxford who
therin hath bynne fauored and auctorised by her
MAAIESTIE and her letters

Translated out of Latin into English by
by IHON WHITE who was sent their speciallye and for the same purpose
by the said SIR WALTER RALEGH the year abouesaid
1585. and also the year 1588. now cutt in copper and first
published by THEODORE de BRY att
his wone chardges. [link to facsimile]

this Booke of Virginia.

    I. The carte of all the coast of Virginia.
    II. The arriuall of the Englishemen in Virginia
    III. A Weroan or great Lorde of Virginia.
    IIII. On of the chieff Ladyes of Secota
    V. On of the Religeous men in the towne of Secota.
    VI. A younge gentill woeman doughter of Secota.
    VII. A chieff Lorde of Roanoac.
    VIII A chieff Ladye of Pomeiooc.
    IX. An ageed manne in his winter garment.
    X. Their manner of carevnge ther Childern and atyere of the chieffe Ladyes of the towne of Dasamonquepeuc.
    XI. The Coniuerer.
    [link to facsimile]

    XII. Their manner of makinge their Boates.
    XIII. Their manner of fishynge in Virginia.
    XIIII. The browyllinge of their fishe ouer the flame.
    XV. Their seetheynge of their meate in earthen pottes.
    XVI. Their Sitting at meate.
    XVII. Their manner of prayinge with their Rattels abowt the fyer.
    XVIII. Their danses whych they vse at their hyghe feastes.
    XIX. The towne of Pomeiooc.
    XX The towne of Secota.
    XXI. Ther Idol Kiwasa.
    XXII. The Tombe of their Werowans or chieff Lordes.
    XXIII. The marckes of sundrye of the chiefe mene of Virginia.

[link to facsimile]

[Frontispiece: Garden of Eden]

[link to facsimile]

To the gentle Reader.

ALthough (frendlye Reader) man by his disobedience, weare depriued of those good Gifts wher with he was indued in his creation, yet he was not berefte of wit to prouyde for hym selfe, nor discretion to deuise things necessarie for his vse, except suche as appartayne to his soules healthe, as may be gathered by this sauage nations, of whome this present worke intreateth. For although they haue noe true knoledge of God nor of his holye worde and are destituted of all lerninge, Yet they passe vs in many thinges, as in Sober feedinge and Dexteritye of witte, in makinge without any instrument of mettall thinges so neate and so fine, as a man would scarsclye beleue thesame, Vnless the Englishemen Had made proofe Therof by their trauailes into the contrye. Consideringe, Therefore that yt was a thinge worthie of admiration, I was verye willinge to offer vnto you the true Pictures of those people wich by the helfe of Maister Richard Hakluyt of Oxford Minister of Gods Word, who first Incouraged me to publish the Worke, I creaued out of the verye original of Maister Ihon White an Englisch paynter who was sent into the contrye by the queenes Maiestye, onlye to draw the description of the place, lynelye to describe the shapes of the Inhabitants their apparell, manners of Liuinge, and fashions, att the speciall Charges of the worthy knighte, Sir WALTER RALEGH, who bestowed noe Small Sume of monnye in the serche and Discouerye of that countrye, From te yeers, 1584. to the ende of The years 1588. Morouer this booke which intreateth of that parte of the new World which the Englishemen call by the name of Virginia I heersett out in the first place, beinge therunto requested of my Frends, by Raeson of the memorye of the fresh and laue performance ther of, albeyt I haue in hand the Historye of Florida wich should bee first sett foorthe because yt was discouured by the Frencheman longe befor the discouerye of Virginia, yet I hope shortlye also to publish thesame, A Victorye, doubtless so Rare, as I thinke the like hath not ben heard nor seene. I craeued both of them at London, an brought, Them hither to Franckfurt, wher I and my sonnes hauen taken ernest paynes in grauinge the pictures ther of in Copper, seeing yt is a matter of noe small importance. Touchinge the stile of both the Discourses, I haue caused yt to bee Reduced into verye Good Frenche and Latin by the aide of verye worshipfull frend of myne. Finallye I hartlye Request thee, that yf any seeke to Contrefaict thes my bookx, (for in this dayes many are so malicious that they seeke to gayne by other men labours) thow wouldest giue noe credit vnto suche conterfaited Drawghte. For dyuers secret marks lye hiddin in my pictures, which wil breede Confusion vnless they bee well obserued..

[link to facsimile]

[The carte of all the coast of Virginia.]

[link to facsimile (verso)]

[link to facsimile (recto)]

II. The arriual of the Englishemen
in Virginia.

THe sea coasts of Virginia arre full of Ilãds, wehr by the entrance into the mayne lãd is hard to finde. For although they bee separated with diuers and sundrie large Diuision, which seeme to yeeld conuenient entrance, yet to our great perill we proued that they wear shallowe, and full of dangerous flatts, and could neuer perce opp into the mayne lãd, vntill wee made trialls in many places with or small pinness. At lengthe wee fownd an entrance vppon our mens diligent serche therof Affter that wee had passed opp, and say led ther in for ashort space we discouered a migthye riuer fallnige downe in to the sownde ouer against those Ilands, which neuerthelesswee could not saile opp any thinge far by Reason of the shallewnes, the mouth ther of beinge annoyed with sands driuen in with the tyde therfore saylinge further, wee came vnto a Good biggyland, the Inhabitante therof as soone as they saw vs began to make a great an horrible crye, as people which meuer befoer had seene men apparelled like vs, and camme a way makinge out crys like wild beasts or men out of their wyts. But beenge gentlye called backe, wee offred thẽ of our wares, as glasses, kniues, babies, and other trifles, which wee thought they deligted in. Soe they stood still, and perceuinge our Good will and courtesie came fawninge vppon vs, and bade us welcome. Then they brought vs to their village in the iland called, Roanoac, and vnto their Weroans or Prince, which entertained vs with Reasonable curtesie, althoug the wear amased at the first sight of vs. Suche was our arriuall into the parte of the world, which we call Virginia, the stature of bodee of wich people, they rattire, and maneer of lyuinge, their feasts, and banketts, I will particullerlye declare vnto yow..

[link to facsimile]

III. A weroan or great Lorde of Virginia.

THe Princes of Virginia are attyred in suche manner as is expressed in this figure. They weare the haire of their heades long and bynde opp the ende of the same in a knot vnder thier eares. Yet they cutt the topp of their heades from the forehead to the nape of the necke in manner of a cokscombe, stirkinge a faier lõge pecher of some berd att the Begininge of the creste vppun their foreheads, and another short one on both seides about their eares. They hange at their eares ether thicke pearles, or somwhat els, as the clawe of some great birde, as cometh in to their fansye. Moreouer They ether pownes, or paynt their forehead, cheeks, chynne, bodye, armes, and leggs, yet in another sorte then the inhabitantz of Florida. They weare a chaine about their necks of pearles or beades of copper, wich they muche esteeme, and ther of wear they also braselets ohn their armes. Vnder their brests about their bellyes appeir certayne spotts, whear they vse to lett them selues bloode, when they are sicke. They hange before theẽ the skinne of some beaste verye feinelye dresset in suche sorte, that the tayle hangcth downe behynde. They carye a quiuer made of small rushes holding their bowe readie bent in on hand, and an arrowe in the other, radie to defend themselues. In this manner they goe to warr, or tho their solemne feasts and banquetts. They take muche pleasure in huntinge of deer wher of theris great store in the contrye, for yt is fruit full, pleasant, and full of Goodly woods. Yt hathe also store of riuers full of diuers sorts of fishe. When they go to battel they paynt their bodyes in the most terible manner that thei can deuise..

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IIII. On of the chieff Ladyes of Secota.

THe woeme of Secotam are of Reasonable good proportion. In their goinge they carrye their hãds danglinge downe, and air dadil in a deer skinne verye excellẽ tlye wel dressed, hanginge downe frõ their nauell vnto the mydds of their thighes, which also couereth their hynder partz. The reste of their bodies are all bare. The forr parte of their haire is cutt shorte, the rest is not ouer Longe, thinne, and softe, and falling downe about their shoulders: They weare a Wrrath about their heads. Their foreheads, cheeks, chynne, armes and leggs are pownced. About their necks they wear a chaine, ether pricked or paynted. They haue small eyes, plaine and flatt noses, narrow foreheads, and broade mowths. For the most parte they hange at their eares chaynes of longe Pearles, and of some smootht bones. Yet their nayles are not longe, as the woemen of Florida. They are also deligtted with walkinge in to the fields, and besides the riuers, to see the huntinge of deers, and catchinge of fische..

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V. On of the Religeous men in the
towne of Secota.

THe Priests of the aforesaid Towne of Secota are well stricken in yeers, and as yt seemeth of more experience then the comon sorte. They weare their heare cutt like a creste, on the topps of their heades as other doe, but the rest are cuttshorte, sauinge those which growe aboue their foreheads in manner of a perriwigge. They also haue somwhat hanginge in their ears. They weare a shorte clocke made of fine hares skinnes quilted with the hayre outwarde. The rest of their bodie is naked. They are notable enchaunters, and for their pleasure they frequent the riuers, to kill with their bowes, and catche wilde ducks, swannes, and other fowles..

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VI. A younge gentill woeman doughter
of Secota.

VIrgins of good parentage are apparelled altogether like the women of Secota aboue mentionned, sauing that they we are hanginge abowt their necks in steede of a chaine certaine thicke, and rownde pearles, with little beades of copper, or polished bones betweene them. They pounce their foreheads, cheecks, armes and legs. Their haire is cutt with two ridges aboue their foreheads, the rest is trussed opp on a knott behinde, they haue broade mowthes, reasonable fair black eyes: they lay their hands often vppon their Shoulders, and couer their brests in token of maydenlike modestye. The rest of their bodyes are naked, as in the picture is to bee seene. They delight also in seeinge fishe taken in the riuers..

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VII. A cheiff Lorde of Roanoac.

THe cheefe men of the yland and towne of Roanoac reace the haire of their crounes of theyr heades cutt like a cokes cõbe, as the other doe. The rest they wear loge as woemen and truss them opp in a knott in the nape of their necks. They hange pearles stringe oppon a threed att their eares, and weare bracelets on their armes of pearles, or small beades of copper or of smoothe bone called minsal, nether paintinge nor powncings of them selues, but in token of authoritye, and honor, they wear a chaine of great pearles, or copper beades or smoothe bones abowt their necks, and a plate of copper hinge vpon a stringe, from the nauel vnto the midds of their thighes. They couer themselues before and behynde as the woemẽ doe with a deers skynne handsomley dressed, and fringed, More ouer they fold their armes together as they walke, or as they talke one wjth another in signe of wisdome. The yle of Roanoac is verye pleisant, ond hath plaintie of fishe by reason of the Water that enuironeth thesame..

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VIII. A chieff Ladye of Pomeiooc.

About 20. milles from that Iland, neere the lake of Paquippe, ther is another towne called Pomeioock hard by the sea. The apparell of the cheefe ladyes of dat towne differeth but litle from the attyre of those which lyue in Roanaac. For they weare their haire trussed opp in a knott, as the maiden doe which we spake of before, and haue their skinnes pownced in thesame manner, yet they wear a chaine of great pearles, or beades of copper, or smoothe bones 5. or 6. fold obout their necks, bearinge one arme in the same, in the other hand they carye a gourde full of some kinde of pleasant liquor. They tye deers skinne doubled about them crochinge hygher about their breasts, which hange downe before almost to their knees, and are almost altogither naked behinde. Commonlye their yonge daugters of 7. or 8. yeares olde do waigt vpon them wearinge abowt them a girdle of skinne, which hangeth downe behinde, and is drawne vnder neath betwene their twiste, and bownde aboue their nauel with mose of trees betwene that and thier skinnes to couer their priuiliers withall. After they be once past 10. yeares of age, they wear deer skinnes as the older sorte do. They are greatlye Diligted with puppetts, and babes which wear brought oute of England..

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IX. An ageed manne in his Winter

THe aged men of Pommeioocke are couered with a large skinne which is tyed vppon their shoulders on one side and hangeth downe beneath their knees wearinge their other arme naked out of the skinne, that they maye bee at more libertie. Those skynnes are Dressed with the hair on, and lyned with other furred skinnes. The yonnge men suffer noe hairr at all to growe vppon their faces but assoone as they growe they put them away, but when thy are come to yeeres they suffer them to growe although to say truthe they come opp verye thinne. They also weare their haire bownde op behynde, and, haue a creste on their heads like the others. The contrye abowt this plase is soe fruit full and good, that England is not to bee compared to yt..

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X. Their manner of careynge the Childern
and a tyere of the cheiffe Ladyes of the
towne of Dasamonquepeuc.

IN the towne of Dasemonquepeuc distant from Roanoac 4. or 5. milles, the woemen are attired, and pownced, in suche sorte as the woemen of Roanoac are, yet they weare noe worathes vppon their heads, nether haue they their thighes painted with small pricks. They haue a strange manner of bearing their children, and quite contrarie to ours. For our woemen carrie their children in their armes before their brests, but they taking their sonne by the right hand, bear him on their backs, holdinge the left thighe in their lefte arme after a strange, and conuesnall fashion, as in the picture is to bee seene..

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XI. The Coniuerer.

THey haue comonlye coniurers or iuglers which vse strange gestures, and often cótrarie to nature in their enchantments: For they be verye familiar with deuils, of whome they enquier what their enemys doe, or other suche thinges. They shaue all their heads sauinge their creste which they weare as other doe, and fasten a small black birde aboue one of their ears as a badge of their office. They weare nothinge but a skinne which hangeth downe from their gyrdle, and couereth their priuityes. They weare a bagg by their side as is expressed in the figure. The Inhabitants giue great credit vnto their speeche, which oftentimes they finde to bee true..

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XII. The manner of makinge their boates.

THe manner of makinge their boates in Virginia is verye wonderfull. For wneras they want Instruments of yron, or other like vnto ours, yet they knowe howe to make them as handsomelye, to saile with whear they liste in their Riuers, and to fishe with all, as ours. First they choose some longe, and thicke tree, accordinge to the bignes of the boate which they would frame, and make a fyre on the grownd abowt the Roote therof, kindlinge the same by little, and little with drie mosse of trees, and chipps of woode that the flame should not mounte opp to highe, and burne to muche of the lengte of the tree When yt is almost burnt thorough, and readye to fall they make a new fyre, which they suffer to burne vntill the tree fall of yt owne accord. Then burninge of the topp, and bowghs of the tree in suche wyse that the bodie of thesame may Retayne his iust lengthe, they raise yt vppon potes laid ouer cross wise vppon forked posts, at suche a reasonable heighte as rhey may handsomlye worke vppó yt. Then take they of the barke with certayne shells: thy reserue the, innermost parte of the lennke, for the nethermost parte of the boate. On the other side they make a fyre accordinge to the lengthe of the bodye of the tree, sauinge at both the endes. That which they thinke is sufficientlye burned they quenche and scrape away with shells, and makinge a new syre they burne yt agayne, and soe they continne somtymes burninge and sometymes fcrapinge, vntill the boate haue sufficient bothowmes. This god indueth thise sauage people with sufficient reason to make thinges necessarie to serue their turnes..

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Their manner of fishynge in

THey haue likewise a notable way to catche fishe in their Riuers for whear as they lacke both yron, and steele, they faste vnto their Reedes or longe Rodds, the hollowe tayle of a certaine fishe like to sea crabb in steede of a poynte, wehr with by nighte or day they stricke fishes, and take them op into their boates. They also know how to vse the prickles, and pricks of other fishes. They also make weares, with settinge opp reedes or twigges in the water, which they soe plant one within a nother, that they growe still narrower, and narrower, as appeareth by this figure. Ther was neuer seene amonge vs soe cunninge a way to take fish withall, wherof sondrie sortes as they fownde in their Riuers vnlike vnto ours. which are alfo of a verye good taste. Dowbtless yt is a pleasant sighte to see the people, somtymes wadinge, and goinge somtymes sailinge in those Riuers, which are shallowe and not deepe, free from all care of heapinge opp Riches for their posterite, content with their state, and liuinge frendlye together of those thinges which god of his bountye hath giuen vnto them, yet without giuinge hym any thankes according to his desarte. So sauage is this people, and depriued of the true knowledge of god. For they haue none other then is mentionned before in this worke..

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XIIII. The brovvyllinge of their fishe
ouer the flame.

AFter they haue taken store of fishe, they gett them vnto a place fitt to dress yt. Ther they sticke vpp in the grownde 4. stakes in a square roome, and lay 4 potes vppon them, and others ouer thwart the same like vnto an hurdle, of sufficient heighte. and layinge their fishe vppon this hurdle, they make a fyre vndernea the to broile the same, not after the manner of the people of Florida, which doe but schorte, and harden their meate in the smoke onlye to Reserue the same duringe all the winter. For this people reseruinge nothinge for store, thei do broile, and spend away all att once and when they haue further neede, they roste or seethe fresh, as wee shall see heraffter. And when as the hurdle can not holde all the fishes, they hange the Rest by the fyrres on sticks sett vpp in the grounde against the fyre, and than they finishe the rest of their cookerye. They take good heede that they bee not burntt. When the first are broyled they lay others on, that weare newlye broughte, continuinge the dressinge of their meate in this sorte, vntill they thincke they haue sufficient..

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XV. Their seetheynge of their meate in
earthen pottes.

THeir woemen know how to make earthen vessells with special Cunninge and thac so large and fine, that our potters with lhoye wheles can make noe better: ant then Remoue them from place to place as easelye as we candoe our brassen kettles. After they haue set them vppon an heape of erthe to stay them from fallinge, they putt wood vnder which being kyndled one of them taketh great care that the fyre burne equallye Rounde abowt. They or their woemen fill the vessel with water, and then putt they in fruite, flesh, and fish, and lett all boyle together like a galliemaufrye, which the Spaniarde call, olla podrida. Then they putte yt out into disches, and sett before the companye, and then they make good cheere together. Yet are they moderate in their eatinge wher by they auoide sicknes. I would to god wee would followe their exemple. For wee should bee free from many kynes of diseasyes which wee fall into by sumptwous and vnseasonable banketts, continuallye deuisinge new sawces, and prouocation of gluttonnye to sarisfie our vnsatiable appetite..

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XVI. Their sitting at meate.

THeir manner of feeding is in this wise. They lay a matt made of bents one the grownde and sett their meate on the mids therof, and then sit downe Rownde, the men vppon one side, and the woemen on the other. Their meate is Mayz sodden, in suche sorte as I described yt in the former treatise of verye good taste, deers flesche, or of some other beaste, and fishe. They are verye sober in their eatinge, and trinkinge, and consequentlye verye longe liued because they doe not oppress nature..

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Their manner of prainge vvith Rattels
abowt te fyer.

VVhen they haue escaped any great danger by sea or lande, or be returned from the warr in token of Ioye they make a great fyer abowt which the men, and woemen sist together, holdinge a certaine fruite in their hands like vnto a rownde pompiõ or a gourde, which after they haue taken out the fruits, and the seedes, then fill with smal stons or certayne bigg kernellt to make the more noise, and fasten that vppon a sticke, and singinge after their manner, they make merrie: as myselfe obserued and noted downe at my beinge amonge them. For it is a strange custome, and worth the obseruation..

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Their danses vvhich
they vse att their hyghe

AT a Certayne tyme of the yere they make a great, and solemne feaste wherunto their neighbours of the townes adioninge repayre from all parts euery man attyred in the most strange fashion they can deuise hauinge certayne marks on the backs to declare of what place they bee. The place where they meet is a broade playne, abowt the which are planted in the grownde certayne posts carued with heads like to the faces of Nonnes couered with theyr vayles. Then beeing sett in order they dance, singe, and vse the strangest gestures that they can possiblye deuise. Three of the fayrest Virgins, of the companie are in the mydds, which imbrassinge one another doe as yt wear turne abowt in their dancinge. All this is donne after the sunne is sett for auoydinge of heate. When they are weerye of dancinge. they goe oute of the circle, and come in vntill their dances be ended, and they goe to make merrye as is expressed in the 16. figure..

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The Tovvne of Pomeiooc.

THe townes of this contrie are in a maner like vnto those which are in Florida, yet are they not soe stronge nor yet preserued with soe great care. They are compassed abowt with poles starcke faste in the grownd, but they are not verye stronge. The entrance is verye narrowe as may be seene by this picture, which is made accordinge to the forme of the towne of Pomeiooc. There are but few howses therin, saue those which belonge to the kinge and his nobles. On the one side is their tempel separated from the other howses, and marked with the letter A. yt is builded rownde, and couered with skynne matts, and as yt wear compassed abowt. With cortynes without windowes, and hath noe ligthe but by the doore. On the other side is the kings lodginge marked with the letter B. Their dwellinges are builded with certaine potes fastened together, and couered with matts which they turne op as high as they thinke good, and soe receue in the lighte and other. Some are also couered with boughes of trees, as euery man lusteth or liketh best. They keepe their feasts and make good cheer together in the midds of the towne as yt is described in they 17. Figure. When the towne standeth fare from the water they digg a great poude noted with the letter C. wherhence they fetche as muche water as they neede..

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The Tovvne of Secota.

THeir townes that are not inclosed with poles aire commonlye fayrer. Then suche as are inclosed, as appereth in this figure which liuelye expresseth the towne of Secotam. For the howses are Scattered heer and ther, and they haue gardein expressed by the letter E. wherin groweth Tobacco which the inhabitants call Vppowoc. They haue also groaues wherin thei take deer, and fields vherin they sowe their corne. In their corne fields they builde as yt weare a scaffolde wher on they sett a cottage like to a rownde chaire, signiffied by F. wherin they place one to watche for there are suche nomber of fowles, and beasts, that vnless they keepe the better watche, they would soone deuoure all their corne. For which cause the watcheman maketh continual cryes and noyse. They sowe their corne with a certaine distance noted by H. otherwise one stalke would choke the grow the of another and the corne would not come vnto his rypeurs G. For the leaves therof are large, like vnto the leaues of great reedes. They haue also a seuerall broade plotte C. whear they meete with their neighbours, to celebrate their cheefe solemne feastes as the 18. picture doth declare: and a place D. whear after they haue ended their feaste they make merrie togither. Ouer against this place they haue a rownd plott B. wher they assemble themselues to make their solemne prayers. Not far from which place ther is a lardge buildinge A. wherin are the tombes of their kings and princes, as will appere by the 22. figure likewise they haue garden notted bey the letter I. wherin they vse to sowe pompions. Also a place marked with K. wherin the make a fyre att their solemne feasts, and hard without the towne a riuer L. from whence they fetche their water. This people therfore voyde of all couetousnes lyue cherfullye and att their harts ease. Butt they solemnise their feasts in the nigt, and therfore they keepe verye great fyres to auoyde darkenes, ant to testifie their loye..

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XXI. Ther Idol Kivvasa.

THe people of this cuntrie haue an Idol, which they call KIWASA: yt is carued of woode in lengthe 4. foote whose heade is like the heades of the people of Florida, the face is of a flesh colour, the brest white, the rest is all blacke, the thighes are also spotter with whitte. He hath a chavne abowt his necke of white beades, betweene which are other Rownde beades of copper which they esteeme more then golde or siluer. This Idol is placed in the temple of the towne of Secotam, as the keper of the kings dead corpses. Somtyme they haue two of thes idoles in theyr churches, and somtine 3. but neuer aboue, which they place in a darke corner wher they shew tetrible. Thes poore soules haue none other knowledge of god although I thinke them verye Desirous to know the truthe. For when as wee kneeled downe on our knees to make our prayers vnto god, they went abowt to imitate vs, and when they saw we moued our lipps, they also dyd the like. Wherfore that is verye like that they might easelye be brongt to the knowledge of the gospel. God of his mercie grant them this grace..

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The Tombe of their Werovvans
or Cheiff Lordes.

THe builde a Scaffolde 9. or 10. foote hihe as is expressed in this figure vnder the tobs of theit Weroans, or cheefe lordes which they couer with matts, and lai the dead corpses of their weroans theruppon in manner followinge. first the bowells are taken forthe. The layinge downe the skinne, they cutt all the flesh cleane from the bones, which the drye in the sonne, and well dryed the inclose in Matts, and place at their feete. Then their bones (remaininge still fastened together with the ligaments whole and vncorrupted) are couered a gayne with leather, and their carcase fashioned as yf their flesh wear not taken away. They lapp eache corps in his owne skinne after thesame in thus handled, and lay yt in his order by the corpses of the other cheef lordes. By the dead bodies they sett their Idol Kiwasa, wher of we spake in the former chapiter: For they are persuaded that thesame doth kepe the dead bodyes of their cheefe lordes that nothinge may hurt them. Moreouer vnder the foresaid scaffolde some on of their preists hath his lodginge, which Mumbleth his prayers nighte and day, and hath charge of the corpses. For his bedd he hath two deares skinnes spredd on the grownde, yf the wether bee cold hee maketh a fyre to warme by withall. Thes poore soules are thus instructed by natute to reuerence their princes euen after their death..

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XXIII. The Marckes of sundrye of the
Cheif mene of Virginia.

THe inhabitãts of all the cuntrie for the most parte haue marks rased on their backs, wherby yt may be knowen what Princes subiects they bee, or of what place they haue their originall. For which cause we haue set downe those marks in this figure, and haue annexed the names of the places, that they might more easelye be discerned. Which industrie hath god indued them withal although they be verye sinple, and rude. And to confesse a truthe I cannot remember, that euer I saw a better or quietter people then they..

The marks which I obserued a monge them, are heere put downe in order folowinge..

The marke which is expressed by A. belongeth tho Wingino, the cheefe lorde of Roanoac..

That which hath B. is the marke of Wingino his sisters husbande..

Those which be noted with the letters, of C. and D. belonge vnto diverse chefe lordes in Secotam..

Those which haue the letters E. F. G. are certaine cheefe men of Pomeiooc, and Aquascogoc..

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tyme dyd habite one part of the
great Bretainne.

had the first of the Inhabitans of Virginia, giue my allso thees 5. Figures
fallowinge, fownd as hy did assured my in a oolld English cronicle, the which
I wold well sett to the ende of thees first Figures, for to showe how that
the Inhabitants of the great Bretannie haue bin in times
past as sauuage as those of

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I. The trvve picture of one

IN tymes past the Pictes, habitans of one part of great Bretainne, which is nowe nammed England, wear sauuages, and did paint all their bodye after the maner followinge. the did lett their haire gro we as fare as their Shoulders, sauinge those which hange vppon their forehead, the which the did cutt. They shaue all their berde except the mustaches, vppon their breast wear painted the head of som birde, ant about the pappes as yt waere beames of the sune, vppon the bellye sum feere full and monstreus face, spreedinge the beames verye fare vppon the thighes. Vppon the two knees som faces of lion, and vppon their leggs as yt hath been shelles of fish. Vppon their Shoulders griffones heades, and then they hath serpents abowt their armes: They caried abowt their necks one ayerne ringe, and another abowt the midds of their bodye, abowt the bellye, and the saids hange on a chaine, a cimeterre or turkie soorde, the did carye in one arme a target made of wode, and in the other hande a picke, of which the ayerne was after the manner of a Lick, whith tassels on, and the other ende with a Rounde boule. And when they hath ouercomme some of their ennemis, they did neuerfelle to carye a we their heads with them..

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II. The trvve picture of a vvomen

THe woemen of the pictes aboue said wear noe worser for the warres then the men. And wear paynted after the manner followinge, hauinge their heads bear, did lett their hairre flyinge. abowt their Showlders wear painted with griffon heades, the lowe parts and thighes with lion faces, or some other beaste as yt commeth best into their fansye, their brest hath a maner of a half moone, with a great stare, and fowre lesser in booth the sides, their pappes painted in maner of beames of the sonne, and amõg all this a great litteninge starre vppon their brests. The saids of som pointes or beames, and the hoolle bellye as a sonne, the armes, thighes, and leggs well painted, of diuerses Figures: The dyd also carye abowt theyr necks an ayern Ringe, as the men did, and suche a girdle with the soorde hainginge, hauinge a Picke or a lance in one hande, and twoe dardz in the other..

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III. The trvve picture of a yonge
dowgter of the Pictes

THe yong dougters of the pictes, did also lett their haire flyinge, and wear also painted ouer all the body, so much that noe men could not faynde any different, yf the hath not vse of another fashion of paintinge, for the did paint themselues of sondrye kinds of flours, and of the fairest that they cowld feynde. being fournished for the rest of such kinds of weappon as the woemen wear as you may see by this present picture a thinge trwelly worthie of admiration..

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IIII. The trvve picture of a man of nation
neigbour vnto the Picte

THerwas in the said great Bretainne yet another nation nigbour vnto the Pictes, which did apparell them selfues with a kind of cassake other cloath Ierkin, the rest of the bodye wear naked. The did also wear l’f3ge heares, and their moustaches, butt the chin wear also shaued as the other before. The dyd were alardge girdle abowt them, in which hange a croket soorde, with the target, and did carye the picke or the lance in their hande, which hath at the lowe end a rownde bowlle, as you may see by this picture..

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V. The trvve picture of a vvomen
nigbour to the Pictes

THeir woemen wear apparelled after this manner, butt that their apparell was opne before the brest, and did fastened with a little lesse, as our woemen doe fasten their peticott. They lett hange their brests outt, as for the rest the dyd carye suche waeppens as the men did, and wear as good as the men for the warre..

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A TABLE OF THE PRINCIPALL THINGES THAT are contained in this Historie, after the order of the Alphabet.


    Allum 7
    Applecrabs 17
    Ashe 23
    Ascopo. 23


    Beares 17
    Beech. 23


    Cedar 9.23
    Chestnuts 17
    Ciuet Cattes 9
    Conies 19
    Coscuhaw 15
    Copper 9
    Cranes 19
    Creuises 21


    Deare 19
    Deare skinnes 9
    Dyes of diuers kindes. 11


    Elme. 23


    Faulcons 19
    Flaxe and Hempe 7
    Fiere trees 23
    Furres 9


    Geese 19
    Crappes 17


    Habascon 15
    Hau they bwild their houses 24
    Haukes 19
    Hernes 19
    Herrings 19
    Holly 23
    Hurleberies. 17


    Iron. 9


    Leekes 17
    Lions. 19


    Macocqwer 16
    Mangummenauk 19
    Maple 23
    Maqwowoc 19
    Marlin 19
    Machicomuck 26
    Medlars 17
    Melden 16
    Metaquesunnauk 17
    Mulberies 17
    Mullets 19
    Muscles. 21


    Natũre of the Virginiens: 24


    Oade 11
    Of beastes 12
    Of foule 19
    Of fruites 17
    Of the Vengeance 29
    Okindgier 14
    Oldwiues 19
    Oyle 9
    Openauk 15
    Orepenauk 15
    Oystres. 21


    Pagatowr 13
    Parats 19
    Partridges 19
    Pearle 9
    Periwinckles 21
    Pitch 9
    Plaice 20
    Planta Solis 14..6
    Popogusso 26
    Porpoises 16


    Rayes 19
    Rakiock 23
    Rafe Lane 32
    Richard Greinuile 32
    Roanoack 8
    Rozen 9


    Sacquenummener 17
    Sagatamener and all his kinds 19
    Sapummener 19
    Saquenuckot 19
    Sassafras 9
    Sassafras trees 23
    Scalopes 21
    Seekanauck 21
    Sea crabbes 21
    Silke of grasse or grasse Silke 7
    Squirels 19
    Stockdoues 19
    Straberies 17
    Sturgeons 19
    Suger cannes 11
    Swannes 19
    Sweete gummes 11
    Stones 24


    Tarre 9
    Their manner of fishinge 20
    Their manner of makinge boates 20
    The soyle better 31
    The strange oppinion the haue of englishemen 27
    The climat of Virginia 31
    Their Relligion 25
    Tsinaw 15
    Troutes 19
    Tortoyses 21
    Turpentine 9
    Turkie cockes 19

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    Turkie hennes 19


    Virginiens willinge to make themselues Christiens. 27
    Virginiens doe estime the things of Europe 27
    Vnknowne sicknes 28
    Vppowoc. 16


    Walnuts 17
    Walnut trees 23
    Wapeih 7.8
    Wasewowr 11
    Weapons of the Virginiens 24
    Wich hazle 23
    Wickenzowr 14.16
    Wilde peaze. 19
    Willowes 23
    Winauck 9
    Wine 9
    Wiroans Wingina 27.28
    Wiroances 26
    Wolues 19
    Worme Silke. 7

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Faults escaped in the impression, the first nombre signiffie the
page, the second the Linne.

Pag. 11. lin. 22. reade, and pag. 14. lin. 14. reade sodden. lin. 27. reade, about. pag. 16. lin. 19. reade, sacrifice. pag. 20. lin. 18. reade Discouery. pag. 23. li. 3. reade hatchets.1.

In the preface of the figures lin. 17. reade lyuely. lin. 23. reade late. figure 2. lin. 1. reade wher. lin. 7. reade fallinge lin. 10. reade neuer. 18. bodye.2.

Fig. 3. lin. 5. reade vppon. fig. 7 lin. 11 reade and, fig. 8. lin. 2. reade that. fig. 12. lin. 11 reade they. lin. 16, reade scrapinge, fig. 13. lin. 10. reade also. fig. 16. lin. 6. drinkinge. fig 21. lin. 12. about.3.

The rest if any be the discreete reader may easily amend.4.


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AT FRANCKFORT, INPRINTED BY IHON WEchel, at Theodore de Bry, owne coast and chardges.
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Full Colophon Information

Genre: Prose
Subjects: Discovery and Exploration of America, natural history
Period: 1550-1600
Location: Virginia
Format: Account/Relation

The text of this version of Hariot's text was originally published in Frankurt by Theodor de Bry in 1590 after an earlier version had been printed at London in 1588.

The machine-readable text of the present edition was initially prepared from A briefe and true re- port of the new found land of Virginia, ed. Theodor de Bry (Frankfurt, 1590), for the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation by Norman M. Wolcott, who generously has permitted us to use a plain-text version used for mark-up here. His transcription, the use of the letter "ſ" has been modernized to "s" but the accents of the originals have been retained. The page images are provided by courtesy of the American Antiquarian Society in Worcester, Massachusetts. Line numbers have been automatically generated. In the header, personal names have been regularized according to the Library of Congress authority files as "Last Name, First Name" for the REG attribute and "First Name Last Name" for the element value. Names have not been regularized in the body of the text.